Main skin types

Normal skin is characterised by the balance of sebum production and hydration. Due to good blood circulation, the skin has a radiant and rosy complexion. Pores are small and barely visible; sebum is not accumulated in them. This skin type hardly produces acne or blackhead; if any appear, they are only on the nose or the forehead.

Further information and recommended products

Oily skin is characterised by the excessive sebum production of the sebaceous glands, as a result of which the skin has an oily, shiny and at the same time thick and pale complexion. Such skin has large pores visible to the eye, and due to the sebum accumulated in the pores, blackheads and acnes often appear.

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Alipic (dry) skin is characterised by powdery flakes, a dull complexion and a slightly rough touch. It often reacts to the slightest external effect or internal change – such as stress or tension – with red patches and itching. Blackheads very rarely occur on this skin type (at the nose base at most). The production of sebaceous lipids and epidermal surface lipids is limited and as a result, the composition of the skin surface emulsion changes and is unable to prevent dehydration.

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The lack of moisture in the skin is a sign of dehydration in the body which develops in the deepest layers of the skin but determines its structure right to the topmost epithelial layer: the skin is likely to become lacklustre and dull and often feels tight, rough and dry – this is why it is often mistaken for dry skin.

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Major skin problems

Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory process on the surface of the central part of the face, the nose and the adjacent areas of the cheeks, the upper lip, the chin and the eyelids, often causing redness. It may appear as an accompanying symptom of any skin type.

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The characteristic symptoms of sensitive skin are the tightness of skin, stinging, burning sensation, frequent redness, and irritation to cosmetic products. It can appear as an accompanying symptom of any skin type and is most common in light and thin skin.

Further information and recommended products

TIP: to determine your skin type, it is best to observe your skin characteristics in the morning before washing your face.

1. NORMAL SKIN

Description and recommended products

Tone: fresh and smooth (due to appropriate circulation, optimal thickness of horny layer (stratum corneum) and perfect skin respiration function) Radiance:
ealthy glow, i. e. not dull and not oily, shiny Pores: closed and clean Touch: silky Elasticity: appropriate Cause: optimal hydration, appropriate skin fibre structure and a compact subcutaneous fat tissue Muscle tone: appropriate Pigmentation: even, i. e. no patches of darker or lighter tones

2. OILY (SEBORRHEIC) SKIN

General characteristics of oily skin

Causes of development: sebaceous glands produce more sebum than necessary, as a result of which the quantity and the chemical composition of the sebum changes. Usually characterised by increased horn production. Comedos (darker, sometimes black dots) often appear, especially on the T-zone of the face.

External causes of development: inappropriate lifestyle, the use of inappropriate cosmetic products, inappropriate eating habits, certain medications, environmental pollution, spicy food, uncleanliness, lack of fresh air.

Internal causes: endocrine disorders, indigestion, predominance of androgens, metabolic disorders, lack of vitamins (A, B), anaemia, hyperacidity, tooth decay, constipation, disorders of the liver, the gall bladder or the stomach, etc. It is the characteristic accompanying skin type of teenage hormonal changes.

Oily seborrheic subtype – description, recommended products

Tone: slightly pinkish-reddish, especially on the cheeks, the chin and the nasal base (where dilated capillaries can also be observed) Radiance: oily shine Pores: expanded, with whiteheads or blackheads Touch: greasy, oily (tip to identify: if you press a paper tissue against the nasal base, a slightly oily patch appears on it) Other symptoms: occasional inflammations on the face

Seborrheic subtype with scaly, dehydrated skin surface – description, recommended products

Tone: slightly greyish, but due to dilated capillaries at the nasal base, the skin in that area is pinkish Radiance: lustreless and dull; shining if rubbed, occasionally dandruff-like scales appear Pores: tight but not clean, whitish-greyish dots (comedones) can be observed in them, especially in the T-zone Touch: rough, oily Other occasional symptoms: a. occasional inflammations on the face; b. dry, tight sensation (due to lack of hydration); c. sensitivity

Acne-prone subtype – description, recommended products

Pores: can be tight or expanded but not clean, whitish-greyish or black dots (comedones) can be observed in them, especially in the T-zone Touch: rough, oily Other possible symptoms: a. aching, purulent inflammations on the face; b. dry, tight sensation (lack of hydration); c. sensitivity

3. ALIPIC SKIN

General characteristics of alipic skin

Causes of development: inappropriate skin care, use of inappropriate cosmetic products, use of cosmetic products with alcohol content, frequent use of antiseptics, air conditioning, metabolic disorders, endocrine disorders (hypothyroidism, reduced androgen production, increased oestrogen production), contraceptive pills, aging, pregnancy, breast-feeding

Oily, seborrheic subtype – description, recommended products

Tone: slightly pinkish-reddish, especially on the cheeks, the chin and the nasal base (where dilated capillaries can also be observed) Radiance: glossy shine Pores: expanded, with whiteheads or blackheads Touch: greasy, oily (tip to identify: if you press a paper tissue against the nasal base, a slightly oily patch appears on it) Other symptoms: occasional inflammations on the face

Moderately alipic skin with surface dehydration subtype – description and recommended products

Tone: slightly greyish, often fresher on the cheeks, redness often appears Radiance: matte Pores: tight Touch: rough, frequent powdery flakes Other possible symptoms: a. occasional redness; b. dry, tight sensation; c. sensitivity to cold and warm temperatures, cosmetic products and mechanical stimuli

Severely alipic skin with surface dehydration subtype – description and recommended products

Tone: fresh Radiance: matte Pores: closed Touch: rough, frequent powdery flakes Other possible symptoms: a. redness occurring due to extreme weather conditions; b. dry, tight sensation; c. aching sensation, sensitivity to cold and warm temperatures, cosmetic products and mechanical stimuli; d. proneness to inflammation

4. DEHYDRATED SKIN

General characteristics of dehydrated skin

External causes: air conditioning, low air humidity due to central heating, polluted air (cities), intense sunlight, smoking, tanning bed, use of inappropriate cosmetic products, extreme weather conditions, inappropriate personal hygiene
Internal causes: early use of hormonal preparations, hormone treated food, lifestyle (stress)

Deeper layer dehydrated and surface dehydrated skin subtype – description and recommended products

Commonly known as: “wrinkled”, mature skin Tone: pale Radiance: dull Pores: tight Touch: rough, frequent powdery flakes Flexibility: reduced Muscle tone: reduced Characteristic symptoms: the appearance of vertical wrinkles on the face and at the base of the ear may imply the development of deeper layer skin dehydration or surface dehydration

Problematic skin

Problematic skin – Skin with Rosacea

Chronic inflammatory process symmetrically appearing on the central part of the face, the nose, the adjacent parts of the cheeks, the upper lips, the chin and the eyelids often accompanied by redness.

Causes: extreme weather conditions, spicy food, food causing hyperaemia, the use of inappropriate cosmetic products, menopause, hyperacidity, psychological problems, hypertension

Sensitive skin

Sensitive skin prone to redness and inflammation

Characteristic symptoms: tight sensation, stinging, burning sensation, frequent redness, irritation to cosmetic products. May appear as an accompanying symptom of any skin type. More frequent in light, thin skin.

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